Operating systems and tools


UNIX is a general purpose operating system originally developed in the 1970s by Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie at Bell Labs. Its utility and wide use has given rise to a number of clones—operating systems that are functionally identical.

FOSSWire UNIX Command Reference

Linux (Ubuntu)

Linux is one such UNIX clone originally invented in 1991 by Linus Torvalds. It is now among the most widely used operating systems in the world. If you have used the Internet, you have interacted with Linux perhaps without even realizing it. Your CodeAnywhere containers run Ubuntu Linux.

The Linux Command Line - William E. Shotts, Jr.

The Ultimate Linux Newbie Guide

Bash (UNIX shell)

Bash is the name of the shell and command language that we use most frequently in Linux and other UNIX clones. It is a text-interface command line envrionment but it can also read commands from files in the form of scripts.

Learning the shell - William E. Shotts, Jr.

Writing shell scripts - William E. Shotts, Jr.

Working with CSVs on the Command Line - Brian Connelly

Shell Scripting Cheat Sheet for Unix and Linux - Steve Parker

VIM (UNIX text editor)

VIM is a text-only, command-based text editor that is meant to be used when no graphical user environment is available. When making commits in git, if you forget to add a message in the command, this is the editor that pops up automatically. It is good to know this and other text editors just in case you are using a Linux system that only has a command line interface.

VIM Cheat Sheet - Richard Torruellas

VIM Quick Reference Card - Laurent Gregoire

APT (Advanced Packaging Tool)

APT is the Advanced Packaging Tool which maintains, downloads, updates, and installs software repositories and packages on Ubuntu Linux. It is originally part of Debian Linux. APT-get is the primary command-line tool that is used to interface with the package management system.

AptGet/Howto - Ubuntu Documentation - Community Help Wiki

Version Control


git is a distributed version control system that keeps track of the changes between plaintext source files. It can be used for collaboration or for managing and keeping track of workflows for individuals. While primarily intended for software source code, git works with any plaintext files, and so can also be used for authoring of other kinds.

Git - The Simple Guide (PDF) (WEB)

Git Cheat Sheet - GitHub

Git Tutorials and Training - Atlassian

Reference sheets from in-class activities

Git local

Basic git workflow cheatsheet


GitHub is a platform that allows for users to keep copies of their open source, plaintext repositories online, in a single centralized location. It also adds a social interaction layer to the process of managing version-controlled source files.

Hello World - GitHub Guides

Keeping GitHub forks up to date with upstream source

Keeping your forked repo synced with the upstream source - Nitin Venkatesh

Syncing a fork - GitHub Help

Reference sheets from in-class activities

Git remote

Markup languages and web code


Markdown is a simple, human-readable, free markup syntax for rendering plaintext source files into HTML or other formats when run through an interpreter.

Markdown Cheat Sheet -

Markdown: The Ins and Outs - Dan Harper

Markdown Tutorial This is an awesome tutorial page to get you started or to round out your new ability to work with Markdown.


HTML is an acronym for "HyperText Markup Language." "Hypertext" is text that contains links to other text. The Web, as we know it, relies on hypertext to for us to communicate with systems and with other humans. It is the medium of Web content.

HTML5 Cheat Sheet -

W3CSchools HTML(5) Tutorial


CSS is an acronym for "Cascading Style Sheet." If HTML is the medium for web content, then CSS is the palette for the visual styling of the web. Whenever a website looks like anything other than just a blank page, there is CSS involved.

CSS3 Cheat Sheet - Leslie Franke

W3CSchools CSS Tutorial

Jekyll and Liquid

Jekyll is a blog-aware static site generator. It uses raw text files in place of a database to store content, which it parses and renders into web code.

Jekyll Cheatsheet - Rico Sta. Cruz

Liquid is a templating engine with simple markup used by Jekyll to render dynamic elements of a site.

Liquid for Designers - Shopify Dev Team

Liquid for Programmers - Shopify Dev Team

Using Jekyll to test web code

Test your site using Jekyll and CodeAnywhere

Document processing


Pandoc is a universal document converter invented and developed by John MacFarlane. It is an indispensible tool for converting to and from a multitude of text document formats.

A good set of commands and rationale for using Pandoc to create and convert documents lives here:

getting off the word standard: your academic life in plain text - Pavel Iosad

The help/manpage file for Pandoc is linked here: Pandoc User Guide. Use it!

Pandoc Demos

Reference sheets from in-class activities




MySQL is an open source relational database management system (RDBMS) that uses structured query language (SQL) syntax. It was invented by Michael Widenius and David Axmark in the mid 1990s. It is now among the most widely-used database systems in the world. It ships with only a command line interface (CLI) and can be scripted.

SQL Tutorial - W3Schools

MySQL 5.5 Reference Manual - MySQL - ORACLE

Essential MySQL Cheat Sheet - guslong

A Quick Guide to MySQL Tables and Queries - Embnet

A Visual Explanation of SQL Joins - Coding Horror



Reveal.js is an open source presentation framework for HTML5 invented by Hakim El Hattab. It allows content creators to develop slideshows as simply as they would web pages. It also has the capacity to add audio narration using a plugin.

Reveal example presentations

Reveal.js: The HTML5 Presentation Framework - Hakim El Hattab

Example presentations - Reveal.js

Reveal tutorials

Reveal.js Tutorial-Reveal.js for Beginners - Tom Campbell


Audacity is a free and open-source software audio recording and editing suite. The project was started in 1999 by Dominic Mazzoni and Roger Dannenberg at Carnegie Mellon University. It has been ported to most major operating systems, including Linux, Windows, and Mac OS.

Basic recording and editing in Audacity - Instructables

How to use Audacity to record and edit audio - Dr. Mark Morton, University of Waterloo

How many words in 5 minutes?

Speech - Words to Minutes Calculator

Productivity suites


LibreOffice is a free and open-source productivity suite developed by the Open Document Foundation. It is the most actively-developed free productivity suite available and originated as a fork of the OpenOffice project in 2010. It is available in 110 different languages.

LibreOffice comprises a variety of programs for different tasks: writer for word processing, calc for creating and editing spreadsheets, impress for creating slideshows, draw for diagrams and drawings, base for databases, and math for composing and editing mathematical formulae.

LibreOffice Documentation for all Packages

All the things

Web developer Rico Sta. Cruz has published all of his own cheatsheets on his website. They are all quite excellent and can serve as a useful reference for anyone just starting out in tech. Check them out.

Cheatsheets - Rico Sta. Cruz

Cheatography has over 2,500 cheatsheets available for various languages, platforms, markups, etc. They are user-contributed and freely available.


Reference -